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What is coffee?

What is coffee?

WHAT IS COFFEE?

Everyone knows what a roasted coffee bean looks like, but you might not know what a coffee plant looks like. Coffee trees are cut low to preserve energy and ease in harvesting, but they can grow to heights of more than 30 feet (9 meters). One tree is coated in green, waxy leaves that grow in pairs opposite each other. Along the branches, coffee cherries grow. Because it grows in a continuous cycle, it is not uncommon to see blossoms, green fruit, and ripe fruit all on the same tree.

After the first flowering, it takes roughly a year for a cherry to mature, and it takes around 5 years to reach full fruit output. Coffee plants can live for up to 100 years, but they are most productive between the ages of 7 and 20. Depending on the variety, proper maintenance can preserve and even increase their productivity over time. The average coffee tree yields 10 pounds of coffee cherries per year, which equates to 2 pounds of green beans. All commercially farmed coffee comes from the Coffee Belt region of the world. Rich soil, warm temperatures, frequent rain, and sheltered sun are ideal conditions for tree growth.

Coffee trees can grow to heights of more than 30 feet (9 meters). Coffee plants can live for up to 100 years, but they are most productive between the ages of 7 and 20. The average coffee tree yields 10 pounds of coffee cherries per year, equating to 2 pounds of green beans.

CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS

Coffee’s origins can be traced back to a plant genus known as Coffea. There are roughly 500 genera and 6,000 species of tropical trees and shrubs under the genus. Coffee plant species are thought to number between 25 and 100, according to experts.

Carolus Linneaus, a Swedish botanist, described the genus in the 18th century, along with Coffea Arabica in his Species Plantarum in 1753. Since then, botanists have debated on the precise classification, owing to the enormous diversity of coffee plants. They can range in size from little shrubs to tall trees, with leaves ranging in size from one to 16 inches and colors ranging from purple or yellow to the predominate dark green. Arabica and Robusta are the two most important coffee species in the commercial coffee industry.

Coffee plant species are thought to number between 25 and 100, according to experts. They can range in size ranging from little shrubs to tall trees, with leaves ranging in size from one to 16 inches. There are 6,000 species of tropical trees and shrubs under the genus Coffea. Carolus Linneaus, a Swedish botanist, described the genus in the 18th century.

ARABICA COFFEA — C. ARABICA

Bourbon, Typica, Caturra, Mundo Novo, Tico, San Ramon, Jamaican Blue Mountain are some of the varieties available. Coffea Arabica is a descendant of the first coffee trees found in Ethiopia. These plants produce a fine, mellow, aromatic coffee and account for almost 70% of global coffee production. The beans are flatter and longer than Robusta and have less caffeine.

Arabica coffees command the highest prices on the global market. The best Arabicas are produced at high altitudes, often between 2,000 and 6,000 feet (610 to 1830 meters) above sea level, while optimal altitude varies with proximity to the equator.

 The most crucial criterion is that temperatures remain warm, ideally between 59 and 75 degrees Fahrenheit, with approximately 60 inches of rain per year. Although the trees are hardy, a heavy winter will destroy them. Arabica trees are expensive to produce since the suitable location is hilly and difficult to access. Furthermore, because the trees are more susceptible to disease than Robusta, they necessitate more care and attention.

Coffa Arabica is a descendant of the first coffee trees found in Ethiopia. These plants produce a fine, mellow, aromatic coffee and account for almost 70% of global coffee production. The beans are flatter and longer than Robusta and have less caffeine. Arabica coffees command the highest prices on the global market.

ROBUSTA

The majority of the world’s Robusta is grown in Central and Western Africa, Southeast Asia (including Indonesia and Vietnam), and Brazil. Robusta production is rising while accounting for just approximately 30% of the global market. Robusta is most found in mixes and instant coffees. The Robusta bean is slightly rounder and smaller than the Arabica bean.

Robusta trees are tougher and more resistant to disease and parasites, making cultivation easier and less expensive. It also has the advantage of being tolerant of milder climes, preferring consistent temperatures between 75- and 85-degrees Fahrenheit, allowing it to grow at far lower altitudes than Arabica. It requires approximately 60 inches of rainfall per year and is not frost-resistant. Robusta beans provide a coffee with a distinct flavor and around 50-60% more caffeine than Arabica beans.

Robusta bean is slightly rounder and smaller than the Arabica bean. Robusta beans provide a coffee with a distinct flavor and around 50-60% more caffeine than Arabica beans. It also has the advantage of being tolerant of milder climes and temperatures between 75- to 85-degrees Fahrenheit.

THE COFFEE CHERRY’S ANATOMY

The coffee beans you brew are actually the processed and roasted seeds of a fruit known as a coffee cherry. The exocarp is the outer skin of the coffee cherry. The mesocarp, a thin layer of pulp beneath it, is followed by the parenchyma, a slimy layer. The beans themselves are encased in a paper-like envelope known as the endocarp, sometimes known as the parchment.

Inside the parchment, two beans are lined up side by side, each separated by a thin membrane. The actual name for this seed skin is the spermoderm, although it is commonly referred to as the silver skin in the coffee trade.

Coffee beans are the roasted seeds of a coffee cherry. The beans themselves are encased in a paper-like envelope known as the endocarp. The actual name for this seed skin is the spermoderm, although it is commonly referred to as the silver skin.

Image Credit: researchgate.net

There is only one bean inside the cherry in around 5% of the world’s coffee. This is a natural mutation known as a peaberry (also known as a caracol or “snail” in Spanish). Peaberries are occasionally manually sorted for special sales because some people believe they are sweeter and tastier than normal beans.

This article was written for Ceylon Coffee Federation.

How to Make A Cup Of Coffee

How to Make A Cup Of Coffee

Coffee is a personal thing; the best method to make it is, the way you like it.

Having said that, knowing a few fundamentals will assist you in perfecting your technique. We invite you to experiment with different roasts, origins, and preparation methods from here.

Here are some pointers on how to make a classic cup of coffee.

1. The Instruments/Equipment’s

After each usage, ensure that all of your instruments, from bean grinders and filters to coffee makers, are fully cleaned.

Rinse with clear, hot water (or thoroughly wipe down) and dry with an absorbent cloth. It’s critical to ensure that no grounds have accumulated and that there hasn’t been a build-up of coffee oil (caffeol), which can make future cups of coffee taste harsh and rancid.

2. The Coffee Bean

Great coffee begins with excellent beans. The quality and flavor of your coffee are impacted not only by your preferred brewing method, but also by the sort of coffee you choose. There can be a world of difference in roasts, so read our guide to roasting types.

Some of the flavoring elements are as follows:

  • The origin country and region
  • The type of bean – Arabica, Robusta, or a Hybrid
  • The sort of roasts
  • The consistency of your grind

While there are many options, keep in mind that there is no right or wrong answer – for example, you can buy a dark, rich espresso roast coffee and yet have it ground for a drip system. Have fun experimenting with and appreciating different combinations.

3. Freshness

Buy coffee as soon as possible after it’s been roasted. Fresh-roasted coffee is crucial for a decent cup, so buy in small quantities (ideally every one to two weeks). Check out our helpful coffee storage techniques to keep your coffee as fresh and tasty as possible.

Please do not re-use your coffee grinds to create coffee. After brewing, the desired coffee flavors have been removed, leaving just the bitter ones. Instead, look at these six ideas for reusing your old grounds.

4. The Grinding

If you buy whole bean coffee, ground it as close to the brew time as possible to ensure optimal freshness. Because the coffee is ground to a constant size, a burr or mill grinder is ideal.

A blade grinder is less desirable since some coffee will be ground finer than others. If you regularly grind your coffee at home using a blade grinder, consider having it done at the store using a burr grinder – you’ll be shocked at the difference! (Regardless of the choice you choose, always follow the manufacturer’s guidelines when operating your grinder, and be careful of any essential safety precautions.)

The size of the grind has a significant impact on the flavor of your coffee. If your coffee tastes bitter, it could be because it was over-extracted or ground too finely. If your coffee tastes flat, it may be under-extracted, indicating that your grind is too coarse.

If you want your coffee ground to order, tell the pros where you buy it exactly how you intend to brew it. Will you be making coffee with a French press? Is it better to use a flat or a cone drip filter? Is that a gold mesh filter? They will grind it precisely for your way of preparation.

5. The Water

The water you use has a significant impact on the quality of your coffee. If your tap water is contaminated or has a strong odor or flavor, such as chlorine, use filtered or bottled water.

If you’re using tap water, let it run for a few seconds before filling your coffee maker, and make sure it’s cold. Water that has been distilled or softened should be avoided.

5.1. Coffee-to-Water Ratio

The “Golden Ratio” is a common guideline that states one to two tablespoons of ground coffee for every six ounces of water. Individual taste preferences can be accommodated by adjusting this.

Examine the cup lines or indicators on your brewer to determine how they truly measure. Also, keep in mind that some water is lost due to evaporation in various brewing processes.

5.2. Temperature of the Water

First and foremost, safety! Of course, if you are working with heat and hot beverages, take all required measures for everyone involved, from those preparing coffee to those serving and drinking coffee.

For optimal extraction, your brewer should keep the water temperature between 195- and 205-degrees Fahrenheit. Colder water results in flat, under-extracted coffee, while hot water results in a loss of quality in the taste of the coffee. (However, cold brew requires no heat.)

If you’re brewing the coffee by hand, bring the water to a full boil but don’t let it boil too long. Turn off the heat and let the water sit for a minute before pouring it over the coffee grounds.

Depending on the container from which it is served, coffee usually cools quickly after being served. In addition, many coffee drinkers add cream or milk, which has a cooling effect. Finally, the temperature at which any individual coffee drinker prefers their coffee, like so many other aspects that distinguish coffee, is a matter of personal preference. These are some of the reasons why it is preferable to serve coffee immediately after it has been brewed, while it is still fresh and hot. Cupping quality standards recommend brewing at 200 degrees Fahrenheit. Lower temperatures should be considered when serving hot beverages, particularly in retail or clinical care settings where there is a risk of burning or scorching. Coffee lovers frequently want to add cold milk or cream, or just let the hot beverage to cool to a drinkable temperature. According to one study, coffee users typically consume their coffee at temperatures of 140 degrees Fahrenheit or lower.

6. Brewing Period

Another major flavor aspect is the amount of time the water is in contact with the coffee grinds.

The contact time in a drip system should be around 5 minutes. If you’re using a French press, the contact time should be between 2-4 minutes. Espresso has a very short brew time – the coffee is only in contact with the water for 20-30 seconds. Cold brew, on the other hand, should steep for at least 24 hours (about 12 hours).

If you’re dissatisfied with the end product’s flavor, you’re probably either:

  • Excessive extraction – the brew duration is too lengthy
  • Under-extracting – the brew duration is insufficient

Experiment with contact time until you find the ideal balance for you.

When preparing and serving any hot beverage, whether for yourself or a customer, safety should always be a top consideration. We encourage you to explore our Food Safety Plan Templates and Workplace Safety resources for industry-specific information, and to always consult with internal counsel before making any safety-related decisions, as NCA cannot provide specific advice regarding any particular working environment or situation.

7. Relax and enjoy your coffee!

Prepared coffee begins to lose its optimal flavor shortly after brewing, so just make as much coffee as you intend to drink. Coffee can also be placed into a warmed, insulated thermos and consumed within one hour.

Try to appreciate your coffee as attentively as you prepared it – inhale the aroma and taste the nuances with each sip. Many people have contributed to its arrival in your cup.

Don’t worry, old coffee is probably not hazardous, just unappealing. No matter what you read on the Internet, always exercise your best judgment before swallowing anything.

This artical was written for our community site [Ceylon Coffee Federation] and thought to share with you too.

Coffee Seed to Cup

Coffee Seed to Cup

From Seed to Cup

The coffee you drink every day has traveled a long distance to reach your cup. Coffee beans go through a standard series of stages to bring out their best between the time they’re grown, picked, and purchased.

1. Gardening

A coffee bean is, in fact, a seed. It is used to make coffee after being dried, roasted, and ground. If the coffee seed is not treated, it can be planted and grown into a coffee tree.

In shaded nurseries, coffee seeds are typically grown in large beds. The seedlings will be watered frequently and kept out of direct sunlight until they are strong enough to be planted permanently. Planting is frequently done during the wet season to keep the soil moist as the roots establish themselves.

2. Getting the Cherries

It will take 3 to 4 years for newly planted coffee trees to develop fruit, depending on the variety. When the coffee cherry is mature and ready to be harvested, it turns a bright, deep red. Every year, there is usually one large harvest. There is a primary and secondary crop in nations such as Colombia, where there are two flowerings per year.

Most countries pick the crop by hand, which is a time-consuming and arduous procedure; but, in places like Brazil, where the environment is relatively flat and the coffee fields are vast, the process has been mechanized. All coffee is harvested in one of two ways, whether by hand or machine:

It will take 3 to 4 years for newly planted coffee trees to develop fruit, depending on the variety. There is a primary and secondary crop in nations such as Colombia. Most countries pick the crop by hand, but in Brazil, the process has become mechanized.

Strip Picked means that all of the cherries are removed from the branch at once, either by machine or by hand.Picked Selectively: Only ripe cherries are plucked, and they are picked individually by hand. Every eight to ten days, pickers rotate among the trees, selecting only the cherries that are at their ripest. Because this type of harvest is more labor consuming and expensive, it is generally employed to harvest the finer Arabica beans.

A good picker will select 100 to 200 pounds of coffee cherries every day, yielding 20 to 40 pounds of coffee beans. Each worker’s daily load is meticulously weighed, and each picker is compensated based on the quality of his or her work. The harvest for the day is then transferred to the processing factory.

The coffee cherry turns red when it is ready to be harvested. Most countries pick the crop by hand, but in Brazil, the process has been mechanized. Each worker’s daily load is meticulously weighed, and each picker is compensated based on the quality of his or her work.

3. The Cherries Are Being Processed

To avoid fruit spoiling, processing must begin as soon as possible after the coffee is gathered. Coffee is processed in one of two ways, depending on location and available resources:

The Dry Way is an age-old method of preparing coffee that is still utilized in many places with limited water resources. The cherries are simply laid out on large surfaces to dry in the sun after being plucked. To keep the cherries from deteriorating, they are raked and turned during the day, then covered at night or during rain to keep them dry. Depending on the weather, this process may take several weeks for each batch of coffee until the moisture level of the cherries reaches 11%.

After harvesting, the Wet Method eliminates the pulp from the coffee cherry, leaving only the parchment skin on the bean. To remove the skin and pulp from the bean, the freshly harvested cherries are first run through a pulping machine.

The beans are then segregated based on weight as they move through water channels. Lighter beans float to the surface, whereas heavier ripe beans sink to the bottom. They are separated by size as they pass through a succession of revolving drums.

The beans are separated and then transported to big, water-filled fermentation tanks. Depending on the state of the beans, the environment, and the altitude, they will stay in these tanks for anywhere from 12 to 48 hours to remove the slippery layer of mucilage (called the parenchyma) that is still connected to the parchment. This layer will disintegrate while resting in the tanks due to naturally occurring enzymes.

When the fermenting process is complete, the beans will feel rough to the touch. The beans are cleaned and ready for drying after passing through additional water channels.

After picking cherries, coffee is processed in one of two ways: Wet or Dry Method. Coffee beans are separated and then transported to big, water-filled fermentation tanks. This removes the slippery layer of mucilage (called the parenchyma) that is still connected to the bean.

4. The Drying of the Beans

If the beans were processed wet, the pulped and fermented beans must now be dried to roughly 11 percent moisture to be safely stored.

These beans, still inside the parchment envelope (the endocarp), can be sun-dried by spreading them on drying tables or floors and turning them frequently, or machine-dried in huge tumblers. The dried beans, known as parchment coffee, are stored in jute or sisal bags until ready for shipment or .further value addition.

5. The Milling of the Beans

Before being shipped, parchment coffee is prepared as follows:

The parchment layer (endocarp) of wet processed coffee is removed by hulling gear. Hulling dry processed coffee refers to removing the complete dried husk of the dried cherries (exocarp, mesocarp, and endocarp).

Polishing is an optional technique that removes any silver skin that remains on the beans after hulling. While polished beans are thought to be superior to unpolished beans, there is little difference between the two.

Grading and sorting are done by size and weight, and beans are also checked for color faults and other flaws.Beans are sized by passing them through a series of filters. They are also pneumatically sorted to distinguish heavy from light beans using an air jet.

The bean size is often indicated on a scale of 10 to 20. The number represents the diameter of a round hole in 1/64ths of an inch. A number 10 bean is about the size of a hole with a diameter of 10/64 of an inch, while a number 15 bean is about the size of a hole with a diameter of 15/64 of an inch.

Finally, faulty beans are removed manually or mechanically. Beans that are unsuitable owing to defects are removed (bad size or color, over-fermented beans, insect-damaged, unhulled). This process is done both by machine and by hand in several places, guaranteeing that only the highest quality coffee beans are exported.

Beans are sized by passing them through a series of filters and are pneumatically sorted to distinguish heavy from light beans using an air jet. Faulty beans are removed manually or mechanically.

6. Exportation of Beans

The milled beans, now known as green coffee, are placed into ships in jute or sisal bags loaded into shipping containers, or bulk-shipped within plastic-lined containers.

7. Coffee Tasting

Coffee is subjected to numerous quality and flavor tests. This procedure is known as cupping, and it is usually performed in a room specifically equipped for the purpose.

First, the taster, sometimes known as the cupper, assesses the beans’ overall visual quality. The beans are then roasted in a small laboratory roaster, quickly ground, and infused in boiling water at a temperature that is precisely controlled. The cupper noses the brew to get a sense of its scent, which is an important stage in determining the quality of the coffee.

After a few minutes of resting, the cupper breaks the crust by pushing the grounds at the top of the cup aside. Before the tasting, the coffee is nosed once more.

The cupper slurps a spoonful of coffee with a fast inhalation to taste it. The goal is to sprinkle the coffee uniformly over the cupper’s taste buds before weighing it on the tongue and spitting it out.

Every day, samples from various batches and types of beans are tasted. Coffees are evaluated not just to detect their features and defects, but also to mix different beans or create the right roast. A professional cupper can taste hundreds of coffee samples per day and still detect minute differences.

Coffee is subjected to numerous quality and flavor tests. Coffees are evaluated not just to detect their features and defects, but also to mix different beans or create the right roast. A professional cupper can taste hundreds of coffee samples per day and still detect minute differences.

8. Coffee Roasting

Roasting turns green coffee into the delicious brown beans we buy in our favorite stores or cafés. Most roasting machines operate at around 550 degrees Fahrenheit. To protect the beans from burning, they are continually moving throughout the process.

When they reach an internal temperature of about 400 degrees Fahrenheit, they start to brown and the caffeol, a fragrant oil held inside the beans, starts to emerge. This process, known as pyrolysis, is crucial to roasting because it generates the flavor and aroma of the coffee we consume.

Following roasting, the beans are quickly chilled by air or water. Roasting is typically done in importing countries since freshly roasted beans must reach consumers as soon as feasible.

The process of roasting coffee beans is crucial because it generates the flavor and aroma of the coffee we consume. Most roasting machines operate at around 550 degrees Fahrenheit to protect the beans from burning. Roasting is typically done in importing countries since beans must reach consumers as soon as feasible.

9. Coffee Grinding

The goal of a good grind is to extract the most taste out of a cup of coffee. The brewing process determines how coarse or fine the coffee is ground.

The appropriate grind grade is determined by the length of time the grounds will be in contact with water. In general, the finer the grind, the faster the coffee should be prepared. As a result, espresso machine coffee is significantly finer ground than drip coffee.

Making Coffee

To learn how to brew coffee, consult our tutorial for tips and techniques on how to produce the perfect cup for any taste. Enjoy!

This artical was written for our community site [Ceylon Coffee Federation] and thought to share with you too.

How to Keep Coffee Safe

How to Keep Coffee Safe

To make the perfect cup of coffee, start with high-quality beans that are properly stored to retain freshness and flavor. The sections that follow detail the best ways for keeping coffee beans.

Keep beans cool and sealed

Air, moisture, heat, and light are your beans’ worst enemies.

To keep your beans’ fresh roasted flavor as long as possible, store them at room temperature in an opaque, airtight container. Coffee beans can be lovely, but avoid clear canisters, which enable light to interfere with the flavor of your coffee.

Keep your beans in a cold, dark place. A cabinet near the oven is frequently overheated, as is a place on the kitchen counter that receives direct afternoon sunlight. Coffee’s retail packaging is not usually suitable for long-term storage. Invest in sealed storage jars if possible.

Purchase the appropriate quantity

Almost immediately after roasting, coffee begins to lose freshness. Purchase smaller amounts of freshly roasted coffee on a more regular basis – enough for one or two weeks.

Air exposure is harmful to your beans. If you want to keep your beans in an accessible and/or appealing container, divide your coffee supply into numerous smaller parts, with the larger, unused amount stored in an airtight container.

Because of the increased exposure to oxygen, this is especially crucial when purchasing pre-ground coffee. If you buy whole beans, grind only what you need right before brewing. For further information, please see our coffee roasting guide.

Do you freeze your beans?

Freshness is essential for a good cup of coffee. Coffee should be consumed as soon as possible after it has been roasted, especially if the original packing seal has been broken, according to experts.

While opinions disagree on whether coffee should be frozen or refrigerated, the key consideration is that coffee collects moisture – as well as aromas and flavors – from the air around it due to its hygroscopic nature (bonus vocabulary word for all the coffee geeks out there).

Most home storage containers still allow small amounts of oxygen in, which is why food stored in the freezer for an extended period of time might suffer from freezer burn. As a result, if you do refrigerate or freeze your beans, utilize an airtight container.

If you prefer to freeze your coffee, take only what you need for no more than a week at a time and return the remainder to the freezer before any condensation forms on the frozen coffee.The main brewing procedure is unaffected by freezing your beans.

This article was wrote for one of our community site [Ceylon Coffee Federation].

Coffee Roasting Guide

Coffee Roasting Guide

Roasting is a high-temperature process that transforms coffee beans into the aromatic, dark brown beans we know and love.Roasting is an art as well as a science.

“Years of training are required to become an excellent roaster who can “read” the beans and make split-second selections. The difference between a flawlessly roasted batch and a destroyed batch of coffee may be measured in seconds”.

Why do we roast?

Roasting releases the aroma and flavor that are contained inside green coffee beans. Beans are stored in green form, which allows them to be stored without losing quality or taste. Green beans have none of the characteristics of roasted beans; they are mushy and spongy to the biting and smell grassy.

As the beans are rapidly heated to extremely high temperatures during roasting, chemical changes occur. When they reach the pinnacle of perfection, they are immediately cooled to bring the process to a halt. Roasted beans smell like coffee and weigh less since the moisture has been removed during the roasting process. They have a crisp bite to them and are ready to be ground and brewed.However, once roasted, they should be utilized as soon as possible before the fresh roast flavor fades.

Roasting coffee beans releases the aroma and flavor that are contained inside green coffee beans. Beans are stored in green form, which allows them to be stored without losing quality or taste. Roasted beans smell like coffee and weigh less since the moisture has been removed during the roasting process.

Understand your roasts

Most roasters have unique names for their favorite roasts, and there is minimal industry consistency. This can be confusing while shopping, but roasts are classified into four color categories: light, medium, medium-dark, and dark.

Many consumers believe that darker roasts have more caffeine because of their powerful, rich flavor, while light roasts actually have a little higher content.

The ideal roast is a personal preference that may be influenced by national preference or geographic region. Common roasts are likely to be found among the four color categories, as described below. It’s a good idea to inquire before making a purchase. Roasts can be vastly different from one another.There are four roasting procedures in general, and 14 roasted coffee beans types can be seen in the coffee industry.

Roasts are classified into four color categories: light, medium, medium-dark, and dark. Darker roasts have more caffeine because of their powerful, rich flavor. The ideal roast is a personal preference that may be influenced by national preference or geographic region.

Light Roasted

This light brown roast is typically used for gentler coffee varietals. Because the beans are not roasted long enough for the oils to penetrate to the surface, there will be no oil on the surface.

  1. Lights City
  2. Half City
  3. Cinnamon

Medium Roasts

This roast has a medium brown hue, a richer flavor, and a non-oily surface. Because it is popular in the United States, it is commonly referred to as the American roast.

  1. City
  2. American
  3. Breakfast

Medium-dark Roast

This roast has a rich, dark color, some oil on the top, and a subtle bittersweet aftertaste.

  1. Full City

Dark roasted 

This roast yields glossy black beans with an oily surface and a strong bitterness. The darker the roast, the lower the acidity in the coffee beverage. Dark roast coffees range from slightly dark to burnt, and the terms are sometimes used interchangeably — double-check your beans before purchasing!

  1. High
  2. Continental
  3. New Orleans
  4. Espresso
  5. Viennese
  6. Italian
  7. French

This artical was written for one of our community site [Ceylon Coffeee Federation] and thought to share it with you too.